171.697 PARTICLE ASTROPHYSICS Spring 2017
** last update: 26 April 2017
Instructor:
Marc Kamionkowski, kamion [at] jhu.edu, 6-0373,
Bloomberg 439
Overview: This will be a class on cosmology and particle
astrophysics, focussed primarily on cosmological perturbations,
the theory of their inflationary origin, and their imprints in
the large-scale galaxy distribution and on the cosmic microwave
background. It is assumed that students have some familiarity
with general relativity and with the standard
Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model and classical
cosmological tests. We will begin with a lightning review of
homogeneous cosmology, then discuss the Newtonian theory of
subhorizon perturbations and galaxy clustering.
Syllabus (!!tentative!!)
Week 1: Review of FRW metric, Friedmann equation;
week of Jan 30 ages, distances, horizons, cosmological
parameters, Neo-classical cosmological
tests---number counts, distance-redshift
relations, Alcock-Paczynski test,
quasar-lensing statistics
suggested reading: Ch. 1 in Weinberg,Chs. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 of
Longair; Chs 1-2 of Dodelson's book.
Ch. 2, 3.1, 3.2, and 3.6 of Kolb-Turner.
Ch 13 of Peebles' "Principles of Physical
Cosmology", and Chs 2-3 of Kolb and
Turner's "The Early Universe" are also
good. Chs 1-2 of Dodelson's book. Ch. 8
of Longair.
Week 2: Thermal history. neutrino decoupling,
week of Feb 6 thermal relics, recombination and the CMB
spectrum, big-bang nucleosynthesis, baryogenesis,
Gunn-Tremaine bound
suggested reading: Ch. 3 in Weinberg. Ch. 3 in Dodelson's book. Chs. 3-5 in
Kolb and Turner's The Early Universe.
Assorted sections in Peebles' Principles
of Physical Cosmology cover what we're
doing this week, but not in one place.
Chs 9-10 in Longair. There may also be relevant
parts to Peacock's Cosmological Physics.
Week 3: Newtonian theory of perturbations. Growth
Week of Feb 13 of linear density perturbations; Jeans instability,
peculiar velocities; spherical top-hat
collapse; correlation functions and the
power spectrum;
suggested reading: Ch. 8 in Weinberg. Assorted sections in
Peebles, although there's no
one-to-one correspondence between his
organization and ours. Chs. 15-17 in
Peacock's "Cosmological Physics". Ch. 9
in Kolb and Turner.
Week 4: More on structure formation: halo abundances
Week of Feb 20 (Press-Schechter theory) and the
luminosity function; biasing, Gaussian versus
non-Gaussian initial conditions;
redshift-space distortions; the Limber
approximation; nonlinear evolution of the
power spectrum; Zeldovich approximation;
galaxy formation;
The CMB and characterization of its
fluctuations
suggested reading: Ch. 8 in Weinberg. Assorted chapters in
Peebles, although there's no
one-to-one correspondence between his
organization and ours. Chs. 15-17 in
Peacock's "Cosmological Physics". Ch. 9
in Kolb and Turner.
Ch. 2 in Weinberg; "Theory of Cosmic
Microwave Background Polarization,"
P. Cabella and M. Kamionkowski,
http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0403392
parts 1-6; Section 4 in arXiv:1510.06042
("The Quest for Cosmic B Modes," by
Kamionkowski and Kovetz).
Week 5: Inflation. Problems with standard hot
week of Feb 27 big-bang; inflationary dynamics.
Suggested reading: Ch. 4 in Weinberg. Carroll, 8.8; Kolb and Turner, Ch. 8;
Dodelson, Ch. 6; Liddle and Lyth,
Cosmological Inflation and Large-Scale
Structure, Ch. 3; Peebles, Ch. 17.
Week 6: Relativistic cosmological perturbations.
Week of Mar 6 Perturbations to the FRW metric,
perturbed stress-energy tensor,
synchronous gauge, Poisson gauge, and
conformal Newtonian gauge.
suggested reading: Ch. 5 in Weinberg; Carroll, Ch 7.2; Ch. 5
in Dodelson; Chapter 4 in Bertschinger's
"Cosmological Dynamics"
(http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9503125).
Week 7: Density perturbations and
week of Apr 3 gravitational waves from inflation.
Suggested reading: Ch. 10 in Weinberg; Dodelson 6.4--6.6;
Liddle and Lyth, {\it
Cosmological Inflation and Large-Scale
Structure}, Ch. 7; Carroll, 8.8; Kolb and
Turner, Ch. 8; Peebles, Ch. 17. My
lectures will be taken from Lecture 2 and
Appendix B in Baumann's TASI lectures,
arXiv:0907.5424
Week 8: Evolution of relativistic perturbations
weeks of Mar 13
suggested reading: Ch. 6 in Weinberg
Weeks 9-10:
weeks of Mar 27 ,10 CMB fluctuations;
Suggested reading: Ch. 7 in Weinberg; "Theory of Cosmic
Microwave Background Polarization," P. Cabella and
M. Kamionkowski,
http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0403392
parts 7-
Also, Kamionkowski and Kovetz,
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-astro-081915-023433
Week 11-12: Gravitational lensing, cosmic shear, and
lensing of the CMB
weeks of Apr 17,24
Suggested reading: Ch. 9 in Weinberg; Dodelson, Chs. 8 and
10; Carroll, 7.3 and
8.6. Cabella and Kamionkowski,
astro-ph/0403392, Sections 8 and 9.
Peacock's "Cosmological Physics," Chapter
2. Blandford-Narayan, Ann Rev Astron
Astrophys 300, 311 (1992).
Week 13: other subjects?:
week of May 1 SZ effect; non-Gaussianity and
scale-dependent bias; EFT of inflation;
alternative-gravity theories; quintessence
and dark energy; intrinsic alignments;
reionization; 21-cm fluctuations; spectral
distortions; reheating; cosmic
birefringence; phase transitions and
topological defects; Lyman-alpha forest;
ADM formalism; in-in formalism; inflation
and string theory; BAO